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Peter Gavrilov
Peter Gavrilov

D C Pandey Physics Book Pdf 319

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

d c pandey physics book pdf 319

The prediction of plastic fragmentation rates is not a simple process. Kinetic fragmentation models have been investigated in the mathematics and physics literatures, and the kinetics of polymer degradation has been researched extensively in the polymer science literature. These models describe the distribution of fragment sizes that result from breakup events. These processes can be expressed by rate equations that assume each particle is exposed to an average environment, mass is the unit used to characterise a particle, and the size distribution is taken to be spatially uniform [69, 70]. These processes can be described linearly (i.e. particle breakup is driven only by a homogeneous external agent) or nonlinearly (i.e. additional influences also play a role), and particle shape can be accounted for by averaging overall possible particle shape [69]. The models used to describe these degradation process are often frequently complicated, but as a general rule focus on chain scission in the polymer backbone through (a) random chain scission (all bonds break with equal probability) characterised by oxidative reactions; (b) scission at the chain midpoint dominated by mechanical degradation; (c) chain-end scission, a monomer-yielding depolymerisation reaction found in thermal and photodecomposition processes; and (d) in terms of inhomogeneity (different bonds have different breaking probability and dispersed throughout the system) [71,72,73]. The estimation of degradation half-lives has also been considered for strongly hydrolysable polymers through the use of exponential decay eqs. [65, 74, 75]. However, the applicability of modelling the exponential decay of more chemically resistant plastics requires greater investigation [74].


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